Wednesday, July 1, 2020

Transcending Ontological Uncertainty with Nietzsches Will to Power - Literature Essay Samples

This world is the will to power and nothing besides. And you yourself are also this will to power and nothing besides. Friedrich NietzscheHuman beings have struggled for centuries to explain their existence: some have thought it meaningless, others God-given. But since the Enlightenment, and the dawn of the Age of Reason, these questions have taken on a new quality. Philosophers, scientists and other great thinkers of the Enlightenment period promoted the power of reason as the force of progress. Through its application, the hierarchical rigidity of ideas like aristocracy and divine ordinance were replaced by individual freedom and rights. But in the time since this period, the Age of Reason has devolved to an era of insecurity, and we have arrived – confused, anxious, and uncertain – at modernity. Some have wondered, â€Å"Why has the generalizing of ‘sweet reason’ not produced a world subject to our prediction and control?† This is the lesso n we have learned: that the force of reason, and its attendant accumulation of knowledge and understanding, has its limits and its shortcomings.The modern problem, as Anthony Giddens identifies in his book The Consequences of Reason, is that the power of knowledge and reason has come up against a brick wall of uncertainty. It has become apparent that â€Å"no amount of accumulated knowledge about social life could encompass all circumstances of its implementation, even if such knowledge were wholly distinct from the environment to which it is applied.† It might have once been thought possible that reason could account for all circumstances, but we have since learned that it is not. This is the nature of risk. Despite the accuracy of our knowledge, and the agility of our reason, circumstance will not come under our control. We can never, and will never, conquer risk. During modernity, in the era following the great Age of Reason, reason does not have the power to overc ome uncertainty. â€Å"†¦The equation of knowledge with certitude has turned out to be misconceived.† Uncertainty is not a problem, on its own, but the particular threat of this modern uncertainty is that it arises from circumstances that we have created ourselves. Our environment of risk does not emanate so much from nature and warfare as it does from reflexive threats: threats – like the airplanes we invented flying into the skyscrapers we built – that we have had a hand in making. Here lies risk – that the airplane will fly into that building – at the center of our modern feelings of insecurity, an outcome of reason.Modern ontological insecurity comes from this promise of reason as a source of legitimacy and power, and its failure to deliver absolute certainty. The tension between reason’s promise and its inability to conquer circumstances of our own creation is a source of metaphysical angst. Giddens identifies two mechani sms we use to combat that angst and provide for normal function. Being â€Å"constantly and consciously anxious†¦would paralyze ordinary day-to-day life.† So, knowing that these risks are outside of our control, we conjure a â€Å"vague and generalized sense of trust in distant events,† a feeling of fate that helps us prevent these events from occupying the forefront of our minds. Fate emerges out of modern anxiety as a way to avoid a sense of existential dread about the risks we face, and a method for carrying on with the day-to-day tasks of living life.According to Giddens, this final contradiction – of a purportedly rational society employing a sense of fate to combat the insecurity it feels as a result of circumstances which are outside its control but of its own creation – is what informs the quality of modernity. It ensures that we remain riders, not drivers, of the juggernaut. It is also, apparently, inescapable because our efforts to a ccumulate more knowledge and employ the force of reason against this uncertainty only circle back against us: â€Å"New knowledge (concepts, theories, findings) [do] not simply render the social world more transparent, but [alter] its nature, spinning it off in novel directions.† The more firmly we grasp onto knowledge about the world, the faster that world changes. For example, suppose that a woman getting married in New York City today knows that she faces about a 50% chance of divorce. This statistic, while having no actual bearing on an individual woman’s chances of staying happily married changes how she thinks about her future in comparison to a woman who knows nothing about her chances of divorce. Though we may try, â€Å"we cannot seize ‘history’ and bend it readily to our collective purposes.† In this way, knowledge actually contributes to further uncertainty, heightening those circumstances we are powerless to affect.According to th e model that Giddens lays out of the conflict between rationality and fate, and our inability to exact agency of over the unstoppable juggernaut of modernity – modern agents are relatively powerless. But there is another perspective: a way of reorienting ourselves with respect to modern circumstances that might strengthen our tenuous grip on the juggernaut.If we are in search of a sort of transcendence of the modern paradigm – a way in which we might come to terms with its juggernaut nature, and discern some agency for ourselves – it might seem unusual to turn to Friedrich Nietzsche, known for his rejection of morality and truth (a rejection he shares with the doctrine of nihilism). But Nietzsche’s brand of nihilism evolves from his interpretation of truth as an unfixed, evolving phenomena. If we trace the evolution of his thought it becomes clear that he rejects the metaphysical in order to ground us more firmly in the here-and-now. This grounding g ives rise to the source of will to power, the force that Nietzsche believes to be responsible for the greatest of human projects. Only when we embrace his vision does it become clear that, rather than evoking life’s meaninglessness, Nietzsche’s way of thought illuminates a path through which we might begin to steer the juggernaut.While certain of Nietzsche’s philosophical ideas overlap with nihilism, they do not originate from the same assumption. Nihilism posits life is devoid of meaning, while Nietzsche is more concerned with the nature of the facts and knowledge that give rise to belief in metaphysical ideas. He insists: â€Å"In so far as the word ‘knowledge’ has any meaning, the world is knowable; but it is interpretable otherwise, and has no meaning behind it, but countless meanings.† This is Nietzsche’s rejection of absolute truth – because only real-world, tangible things that present themselves before us are eviden t, and it is not justifiable to interpret beyond what is evident. Therefore, knowledge is not fixed or immutable, but fluid and subject to change: just as life, itself, is constantly evolving. Using the metaphor of life as a painting, Nietzsche further explains:†¦this painting – that which we men call life and experience – has gradually become, and is indeed still fully in process of becoming, and should thus not be regarded as a fixed magnitude from which one might draw a conclusion as to the originator (the sufficient reason)†¦ There is a motion to existence, in both its distinct past and prospective future. Since â€Å"life and experience† have always been and continue to be in the process of changing, it is unreasonable to â€Å"draw a conclusion† above or beyond what is certain. Here, we can see that Nietzsche does not reject the metaphysical for the purpose of declaring life meaningless: according to his way of thinking, and rigorous methods of thought, there is simply no justification for believing in it. The instability of claims to knowledge is precisely the same phenomenon that Giddens argues is central to modernity’s inherent insecurity. Nothing we know or believe is stable because it is always subject to change. In this context, Nietzsche can help to explain where modern insecurity comes from:Look, isn’t our need for knowledge precisely this need for the familiar, the will to uncover everything strange, unusual, and questionable something that no longer disturbs us? Is it not the instinct of fear that bids us to know? And is the jubilation of those who attain knowledge not the jubilation over the restoration of a sense of security? If knowledge produces security, then it is easy to see why an era in which knowledge is not certain is an era of great uncertainty. â€Å"Reflexively applied knowledge† is metaphysically empty because, in modern times, â€Å"the equation of knowledge w ith certitude has turned out to be misconceived,† and thus knowledge is not necessarily productive of absolute truth. When our quest for certain or absolute knowledge is unsuccessful, so do our feelings of insecurity overwhelm us.Nietzsche circumvents this dilemma by denying the necessity of the very claims to absolute knowledge that we find at the center of our modern insecurity. According to his conception, there is nothing beyond this life and this experience that could serve as a standard – not morals, not truth, and not God – and thus any search for metaphysical truth is in vain. In light of this conception, the only alternative to nihilism, and the only option for Nietzsche (who believes in nothing beyond the here-and-now) is to identify some force at the center of the world he characterizes. To Nietzsche, the answer is clear; human history has been the expression of will to power. In its greatest conquests, of war and empires, and its highest achieve ments, of art and culture, humanity has been discharging its power. Nietzsche explains his conception at the end of Will to Power:And do you know what ‘the world’ is to me? Shall I show it to you in my mirror? This world: a monster of energy, without beginning, without end; a firm, iron magnitude of force that does not grow bigger or smaller, that does not expend itself but only transforms†¦This world is the will to power – and nothing besides! And you yourselves are also this will to power – and nothing besides! This both exemplifies the central position of power in Nietzsche’s vision of the world, and demonstrates how that vision excludes claims to absolute knowledge that give rise to modern insecurity. The world is not simply the will to power, it is nothing besides. Every action, every creation, every triumph and every failure is an expression of this fundamental force. And because our world â€Å"only transforms† – it is without beginning or end, it neither grows nor shrinks, and yet contains an enormous amount of force and energy the only things we can be sure of are those that exist now, here, right in front of us.It now seems possible to reconcile the insecurity arising from the juggernaut-like quality of modernity with Nietzsche’s vision of a positive will to power. In his explication of such a will, one which (as James Der Derian explains) is â€Å"an active and affective force of becoming, from which values and meanings†¦are produced which affirm life,† Nietzsche directs us away from our fear of insecurity. Such a fear, at the root of modern ontological anxiety, is what motivates our pursuit of knowledge. It is â€Å"the instinct of fear that bids us to know.† Nietzsche directs us to the dawn of a new era, beyond the Age of Reason, where we do not long to pin down that which is not certain or predictable, but employ our will in activities that engage the wor ld around us in a healthy way. This is a vision of life as a painting, still in the process of being unrolled. As Nietzsche says, â€Å"that which we men call life and experience – has gradually become, is indeed still fully in process of becoming†¦Ã¢â‚¬  It is misguided, therefore, to search for a fixed principle as a means of generalizing about existence. Instead, our efforts should embrace that force – power – which Nietzsche views as the fundamental drive of all humanity. To do so is to embrace a positive will to power: that act of â€Å"becoming† which, like art, is a creative process directed towards something constructive. We create our own lives, we will our own existence, and do not become victims of the modern forces – like insecurity or uncertainty – to which modern circumstances might make us slaves.Understood in this way, as a guiding philosophy of existence that grounds us in reality, Nietzsche’s will to po wer is the antidote to the disembedded, uncertain, anxious society that we have become. He directs our focus away from feelings that are rooted in a search for metaphysical security by claiming that there is none to be found. While it denies the metaphysical, his philosophy occupies the same transcendent plain, albeit in a real-world fashion. Nietzsche denies Giddens’ juggernaut by refusing to acknowledge any inherent order or disorder within the universe. But there is still tension between the nihilism of a perspective that denies any absolute truth, and the transcendent demension of the will to power. Thus, Nietzsche’s philosophy retains a paradox, preventing it from hardening into a didactic doctrine. It remains an experiment in reorienting ourselves away from the uncertainties of the modern world.BibliographyDer Derian, James. â€Å"The Value of Security: Hobbes, Marx, Nietzsche, and Baudrillard.† On Security. Ed. Ronnie D. Lipshutz. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995, 24-45.Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press 1990.Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Translated and edited by R.J. Hollindale. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.Nietzsche, Friedrich. Will to Power: An Attempted Transvaluation of All Values. Translated by Anthony M. Ludovici. Edinburgh: T.N. Foulis, 1910.Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, Josefine Nauckhoff, and Adrian Del Caro. The Gay Science: With a Prelude in German Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs. Cambridge texts in the history of philosophy. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Impact Of President Obamas Foreign Policy - 1354 Words

On Friday January 20th 2017, Donald Trump became the 45th president of the United States and his inauguration ended the eight year presidency of Barack Obama. One of the cornerstones of the Obama administration’s foreign policy was its tactics in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. From the early days in his presidency, Obama had to make life or death decisions on drone strikes designed to prevent terrorist attacks and over the course of his presidency the frequency of these drone strikes began to increase (Klaidman, 2012; Stone, 2017). The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the United States (US) military currently launch drone strikes eight countries including the following: Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, Yemen,†¦show more content†¦By increasing the number of drone strikes, the Trump administration is only working against its goal of defeating terrorist organizations within the MENA region (Homer-Dixon, 2001; Schirch, n.d). Finally, the large n umber of countries that the US launches strikes in, has created radical groups all around the world. The US is currently engaged in more conflicts that anytime since the cold war: a direct result of the US drone program (Parsons Hennigan, 2017). As the Trump administration increases the number of drone strikes it launches, it is fuelling the conditions that breed conflicts (Homer-Dixon, 2001). Overall, the Trump administration is continuing conflicts in at least eight countries with its drone strikes and will increase the intensity of these conflicts if they continue to launch strikes at the present rate. Body Paragraph 2 In 2011, the CIA relabelled so called ‘signature strikes’ where young military age males are targeted in drone strikes without evidence of terrorist activities. These activities could be something as mundane as doing jumping jacks. Nevertheless, the CIA says that these types of people could be training for terrorist missions and conducts â€Å"terrorist-attack-disruption strikes (TADS)† against them (Klaidman, 2012). However, these people do not count asShow MoreRelatedReflection Of The Obama Doctrine1662 Words   |  7 PagesDoctrine† At the end of their term, each president is subject to critique regarding their competency in office. One important aspect that is heavily looked at is their legacy in the arena of foreign relations. Presidents are remembered for the impact they have made to the world for better or for worse. An example of this can be Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush. Both are former presidents of the United States who are known for their impact in international relations, in the wake of anRead MoreBarack Obama s Accomplishments And Challenges Essay1718 Words   |  7 PagesPresident Barack Obama is seen as one of the most controversial presidents in the recent U.S. history. This paper will examine Obama s legacy by introducing his background prior to the white House; analyze Obama’s major accomplishments and challenges in the past 8 years. As well as examines the internal opposition force from the other branches of the government Obama faced when conducting domestic policy. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii, to a white mother from Kansas, StanleyRead MoreMidterm Elections : Midterm Election1665 Words   |  7 Pagesreflection of the effectiveness and popularity of the incumbent president. Invariably, the party that does not control the White House is usually in favor of winning the midterm elections, with very few exceptions. For example, in the 1986 elections, President Reagan was convinced that Republicans would maintain a majority in the House of Representatives. However, voters overwhelmingly chose the Democrats who took control of the U.S. Senate. President Clinton had a similar experience in an election that wasRead MoreBarack Obama s President Of The United States1264 Words   |  6 Pagesfirst African-American president of the United States of America was born in the State of Hawaii where he grew up. His grandparents raised him up from a humble background. The presidency of Obama began on 20th January in the year 2009 after he was sworn in as the 44th president of United States of America. Before unveiling his ambition of vying for the top seat, Barack Obama was the Illinois senator in United States. Obama’s presidency came about as a result of succeeding President George Bush. Bush’sRead MoreWoodrow Wilson s Accomplishments And Failures1691 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstand the successes and failures of the 28th president of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, it is essential to define the image he portrayed to the American population during his presidency. Many Americans and historians will claim he was a man of impartiality and the one who led America into WWI. He had a very solid influence on Congress for the many domestic and foreign affair policies he endorsed. The goal is to illustrate how President Woodrow Wilson ran his presidency in the eyes of theRead MoreThe United States And The Civil Rights Movement903 Words   |  4 PagesBeginning in the 1960’s the growing strength of the civil rights movement struck the attention of political figures that influenced calls to reform the U.S. immigration policy. In the 1920’s immigration was based on the national-origins quota system. The system assigned each nationality a quota, which res tricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of the population due to its representation in past U.S. census figures. The goal of the quota system was to maintain the existing ethnicRead MoreLeadership : The Public Policy Process1299 Words   |  6 PagesRunning Head: LEADERSHIP 1 Leadership in the Public Policy Process Sharon Lockhart Foundations of Public Administration/PPA601 Dr. LaQuita Gray-Baker April 3, 2017Read MoreEssay about Iran Engagement Policy Option1643 Words   |  7 Pagesfocus of this paper is an analysis on an Iranian engagement policy option outlined in the CSIS Report â€Å"The Gulf Kaleidoscope: Reflections on the Iranian Challenge†. The international relations theory of liberalism is applied using the tenets of economic interdependence and democratic transparency. For three decades, exchanges between the United States and Iranian diplomats have been tactical, not strategic. There are various policy options that can be utilized effectively and strategically toRead MoreLets Rock the Informed Vote: Barack Hussein Obama1091 Words   |  5 PagesThe incumbent 44th President of the United States is my preferential candidate of choice for the upcoming November, 2012 Presidential election. Dissecting his views and actions on a variety of topical policy issues will illustrate that my support for my candidate is on target. Furthermore, data will show success of Obama’s policies. Leading economists, including New York University’s Mark Gertler called the economic climate Obama inherited â€Å"one of the worst financial crisis since the Great DepressionRead MoreThe National Security Strategy : An Evaluation Of International Relations Theories Essay899 Words   |  4 Pagesagainst foreign state and non-state actors. Although, the Libera list theory permeates the Obama administration’s documented strategy within the NSS, in a realist fashion the document defines the primary American interest as, security of the country, its citizens, and its partners. Liberalism has a negative impact on national security, as the theory does not sufficiently address future threats to a states’ sovereignty. Through the lens of liberalism, the U.S. national strategy and policy is advantageous

Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS There are generally two kinds of research: qualitative and quantitative. For any research project the researcher needs to be clear about which type of research will provide the information required. The role of qualitative research is to tell you why; quantitative research tells you how many. The methods are quite different. Definition of Quantitative research? Theres no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0- Fred Kerlinger Different researchers and educators have given different definitions to â€Å"quantitative research.† Below are a few of them: Quantitative research refers to the numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose†¦show more content†¦The researcher does not randomly assign groups and must use ones that are naturally formed or pre-existing groups. Identified control groups exposed to the treatment variable are studied and compared to groups who are not. Examples: * The effect of gender issues on the economic development of a country. * The effect of full-time employment on the achievement of graduate students. * The examination of the social interaction of impoverished students as compared to affluent students. Experimental Research An experimental research study, according to Gay and Airasian, can be defined as being guided by at least one hypothesis that states an expected casual relationship between two variables. The experiment is conducted to confirm (support) or disconfirm the experimental hypothesis. Experimental research, often known as true experiment, establishes the cause-effect relationship among variables. The cause or independent variable is manipulated, makes the difference and determines the effects on the dependent variables. Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental treatments rather than identified in naturally occurring groups. Examples * The effect of a new treatment plan on infertility. * The effect of t he alarming rates of illiteracy on the social and economic growth of a nation. * A comparison of the effect of classroom learning vs. home schooling on the social development of a child. USES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH When do we useShow MoreRelatedIntroduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods3731 Words   |  15 PagesINTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS There are generally two kinds of research: qualitative and quantitative. For any research project the researcher needs to be clear about which type of research will provide the information required. The role of qualitative research is to tell you why; quantitative research tells you how many. The methods are quite different. Definition of Quantitative research? There s no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1Read MoreComparing and Contrasting NCUs Concept Paper Requirements for Qualitative and or Quantitative Papers1409 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The theoretical discipline of philosophy is broken down into five facets. (1) Logic, that details the rules of an argument, and distinguishing valid from invalid forms of argument; (2) Ethics, and its distinction between right and wrong, good or evil, moral or immoral; (3) Epistemology, which is the nature of knowledge, what it is, how we know, and what is the truth? (4) Aesthetic, that takes into account the nature of beauty and art; and (5) Metaphysics, reality and what we considerRead MoreQualitative vs. Quantitative Research742 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Quantitative vs. Qualitative Introduction Qualitative research is designed in general to try and understand and interpret social interactions, according to Xavier University. Quantitative research, on the other hand, is used to test hypothesis, to examine cause and effect, and to make predictions (Xavier). Qualitative research is used to identify patters, themes and certain features while quantitative research tends towards identifying statistical relationships (Xavier). As to the role ofRead MoreThe Definition Of Science And Research Methods1189 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is science? A brief elaboration of the definition of science and research methods INTRODUCTION Science is a complex activity, which may be defined in a number of ways. To unite both the process and the product of science, one way to define science is as a process of constructing predictive conceptual models (Gilbert, 1991). Gilbert (1991) states, when referring to Kuhn (1970, Lunetta Hofstein (1981), Miller (1978) and Stevens Collins (1980) that in essence, ‘’the definition of scienceRead MoreThe Scientific And Disciplined Inquiry Approach757 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction to Research Methodologies According to Merriam -Webster (2015), research is the â€Å"investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws†. As stated by Ndunda (2004), â€Å"research helps to provide facts, reliable information or verifiable information instead of assumptions.† Research should be conducted in a structured, systematicRead MoreQualitative Quantitative Research Methods1047 Words   |  5 PagesQualitative amp; Quantitative Research Methods PSY 326 Dr. Willow Aureala March 29, 2011 Qualitative amp; Quantitative Research Methods There are two types of research methods: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research methods are complex meaningful analyses characterized by processes and meanings that are not measured in terms of mathematical measurements. Quantitative research however, relies and builds on mathematical procedures and methods, such as frequency, quality, amountRead MoreModule 1 Slp . Introduction To Research Methodologies .1219 Words   |  5 PagesModule 1 SLP Introduction to Research Methodologies MAE 504 Research Methods in Education Dr. Wilson Tiaqunia Hayes Your task for the Module 1 SLP assignment is twofold: FIRST, fill in the matrix with information pertaining to the following items: identify the type of research represented by each methodology listed in the matrix (i.e., quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods) describe the purpose of each research methodology listed in the matrix, provide an example of a research problem forRead MoreQuantitative, Qualitative And Quantitative Methodologies804 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Along with qualitative and quantitative methodologies in research, the trend of combining both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is widely used and increasingly articulated, attached to research practice and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm (Johnson, Onwuegbuzie Turner, 2007). As cited by Anaf and Sheppard (2007), Key in 1997 suggested the theory and meaning, qualitative and quantitative methodologies are distinct. A qualitative methodology’sRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Experience1437 Words   |  6 PagesIn particular, qualitative researchers tend to focus more on the social-constructed reality and the contextual influence, interaction and constraints between the researcher(s) and the participants. They are interested in finding answers to questions that focus on the â€Å"social construction of experience and how meaning is created† (Cooper White, 2012, p. 15). However, quantitative researchers â€Å"emphasize measurement and analysis, and focus on product rather than process† (Cooper White, 2012, p.Read MoreDefinition Of Quantitative Research Methods944 Words   |  4 PagesQuantitative research methods are most generally worried with weighing criminological or criminal justice existence. In order for this method to be un derstood, there are numerous amounts of conditions which must be initially recognized. Concepts are hypothetical labels assigned on reality that are appointed binary characters, hence making them changeable. Variables are then investigated to inspect designs of affiliation, as well as a chain of reaction. At the most basic level, there exists at least

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Erikson s Theory For Psychosocial Development - 1000 Words

Erikson was a theorist who focused on his theory for psychosocial development. The article Psychosocial Identity Development Theories, highlights the keys points and idea of Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Erikson was very focused on the idea of ego identity and obtaining full potential. His theory or â€Å"model† stats that, â€Å"identity formation is based on overcoming conflicts that individuals encounter during adolescent and early childhood.†(Karkouti, 2014, p.257) He believed that all people must endure certain conflicts in their lives, and then overcome them in order to obtain their ego identity. The idea of psychosocial development is focused on social conflicts, and environmental factors. In the psychosocial model that Erikson created, it places people into eight stages. In order for someone to move on to the next stage, they must first overcome the conflict presented to them in the stage that they are in. A well-established identity will get stronger t he more that conflict is successfully resolved. The eight stages are basic trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative verses guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus identity diffusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and ego integrity versus despair. In this article, it not only focuses on the main idea for psychosocial development, but it continues by then saying that the theory has two criticisms, â€Å"stages are descriptive and they are difficult to be empiricallyShow MoreRelatedErikson s Psychosocial Theory And Psychosocial Development1561 Words   |  7 PagesTheories and Theorists Theories are the building blocks of psychology. Theories whether old or new has allowed us to know what we know now. There are many theories in the field of psychology or educational psychology that are important to further understand human behavior. However, this paper will focus on only two theories which are; Erikson’s psychosocial theory and Alfred Adler’s Adlerian theory. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development has always been a great contribution to the field of psychologyRead MoreErikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development Essay2534 Words   |  11 PagesErik Erikson is a developmental psychologist that was prominent in 1963 who provided a framework that is used as a basis of understanding adolescent mind’s journey through psychosocial development. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is rooted in a belief that social aspects of development hold a greater importance than the physical and biological. Erikson didn’t see an endpoint in his theory, as throughout life a person keeps developing. As such Erikson’s theory has a total of 8 stagesRead MoreErikson s Psychosocial Development Theory Essay1622 Words   |  7 Pagesas well as being looked at through different developmental theories. Many pages in the Individuals and Families, Diverse Perspectives (Holloway, Holloway Witte, 2010) will be used to help relate the primary research to the secondary research of this project. The ways of socializing children will be mentioned as well as the concept of teaching morals and values to children and how it can be explained through different developmental theories. Teaching morals and values to children can be explainedRead MoreErikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development Essay1691 Words   |  7 PagesPsychosocial Development â€Å"Erik Erickson (1902-1994) was best known for his work on stages of psychosocial development and identity crisis† (Cherry, A Brief Biography of His Remarkable Life, 2016). Erickson was able to gain a clear focus on children and was able to interpret what he was seeing by observing children throughout the life, including events of childhood, adulthood, and old age. Erikson s theory posits that every human being passes through several distinct and qualitatively differentRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development Essay1177 Words   |  5 Pages Erik Erikson was born in Greman in 1902-1994, American psychoanalyst; known for psychosocial theory of emotional development of human beings. His theory looks at the impact of parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. Erikson believes, each person has to pass through a series of eight stages over there entire life cycle. I will look at the first 3 stages that cover the childhood years. There are set of conflict at each stage, which allows individual to developRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development884 Words   |  4 PagesErik Erikson Erik Erikson was born June 15, 1902. Erikson is best-known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked an important shift in thinking on personality; instead of focusing simply on early childhood event, his psychosocial theory looked at how social influences contribute to personality throughout the entire lifespan. Erik Erikson died May 12, 1994 due to prostate cancer. (Erik Erikson, 2015). Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development1445 Words   |  6 PagesErik Erikson was an ego psychologists who developed one of the utmost popular and prominent theories of development. While Erikson’s theory was influenced by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud s work, Erikson s theory centered on psychosocial development rather than psychosexual development. Erik Erikson s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. UnlikeRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory1518 Words   |  7 PagesABSTRACT This research paper will show a thorough review of Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory, specifically the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Psychosocial Development, according to Erik Erikson, is a continuity of crisis throughout our lifespan; these challenges will shape our personality and the way we perceive our surroundings. In addition to this, the different stages mentioned in this Theory complement each other and help us to develop the tools to achieve a sense ofRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development Essay1366 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Erik Erikson (1902-1994) provided a new perspective of psychosocial behavior and development while expanding on the works of other theorists. Erikson believed there to be eight stages of psychosocial development which a person transitions through. These stages start at birth and end with old age/death. Erikson’s work is used throughout many outlets of social work. Social workers use this information to help them figure out what is going on with clients and how best to help them. Erikson providesRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development1818 Words   |  8 Pagesinfluential theories in developmental psychology, which is Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. It is a very interesting theory, and although it was influenced by Sigmund Freud, it centers more on the social component rather than the psychosexual stand of Freud. According to Erikson, our personal development occurs as we interact daily with others and have new experiences that shape us throughout our lives. This paper will review the eight stages of the psychosocial theory: 1. Trust

Richard Wright s The Man Who Was Almost A Man And William...

The Most important relationship throughout a male’s life is that of his father. While there is no doubt the relationship of a mother also plays a critical role, the father takes a special meaning in that of a developing male child. This relationship ultimately influences a boy and every single relationship for the rest of his life. The father figure helps a boy mature into a male of strong moral fiber, creating a respectable citizen with a sense of responsibility. A father plays a delicate role of mentor and authoritarian while balancing emotion. Great father’s can cultivate common ground with their son’s, as they are impressionable at an early age. Father figures play a critical role in the development of the main characters in both Richard Wright s The Man Who Was Almost a Man and William Faulkner s Barn Burning. Moreover, both stories focus on adolescent males who are running from their past in search of a better life. Wright wrote about an African-American bo y who tries to grow up too fast, while Faulkner’s is the story of a white kid growing up with a the moral dilemma of right from wrong. While the Northern victory of the Civil War in 1865 may have given approximately four million African-American’s their freedom, it wasn’t until almost 90 years later they would see any of those rights that were promised under the United States Constitution. The Southern American States were in complete shambles for almost forty years after. Both stories are set in the late

Social Marketing Segmentation - Solution is Just a Click Away - Free S

Question: Discuss about theSocial Marketingfor Market Segmentation and Targeting. Answer: Introduction The major aim of this study is to implement and analyze the social market planning process. The social market planning in this study is based on the social campaigning regarding the prohibition of the use of mobile phones while driving. Moreover, this campaign is going to be organized by Optus, which is one of the largest telecommunication companies in Australia. Moreover, this study also focuses on the reason and the target of this campaign along with demonstrating the SWOT analysis of Optus. On the other hand, this study also highlights the target market for this campaign and demonstrates the 4Ps of marketing mix in regards to this campaign. At the end, this study also provides an attention-grabbing message and evaluates this message with respect to the objective of this campaign. Company Background Optus is the second largest telecommunication organization in Australia and since 2001, it is completely a owned subsidiary of Singtel. It was established in 1981 as AUSSAT and headquartered in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (Optus, 2017). Primarily this organization trades under the Optus brand during managing numerous owned subsidiary brands like Alphawest in the ICT services, Uecomm in the network services market and virgin mobile Australia. Optus mainly operates as well as owns its own network infrastructure for providing services. Moreover, it also utilizes the wholesale services of Telstra and National Broadband Network. It provides the wholesale services incorporating 4G mobile and satellite along with providing wireless internet services and broadband services. Moreover, Optus is the biggest satellite wholesaler in Australia. Therefore, in this regard, this telecommunication organization has been selected for this study. Campaign Details Recently, Optus has planned to run a campaign in regards to the social marketing planning. This campaign is about discouraging the utilization of mobile phone while driving. Reason for Organizing this Campaign This campaign has mainly two key purposes such as social and business purposes. Use of mobile phones while driving has become a delicate issue for every human being. Worldwide awareness is being tried to be established among people regarding this matter (Huang Sarigll, 2014). This kind of activity often results in severe accidents and even it can be reason of life risks of people. Thus, major reason or the social purpose of this campaign is to create a social awareness among people including new and existing customers regarding the consequences of using mobile phones while driving (Jones et al., 2016). Moreover, in case of the business purpose, people would like to more prefer this mobile brand as this organization is directly concerned about the safety awareness of the customers. Campaign Target For the campaign of creating social awareness among customers to discourage mobile usage while driving, Optus has targeted all the existing as well as the new customers who purchase or are willing to purchase their mobile phones. Moreover, this organization has tried to seek attention of those people who have to drive at least once a day (Leonidou et al., 2013). Furthermore, the people with middle and high income level are the major focus of this campaign. 4. SWOT Analysis of Optus Strengths - Fast local support and reliable services Availability over a large range of areas all over Australia Growing internet and mobile customer base One of the biggest telecom organizations in this country Smaller players acquisition has made strong this particular brand (Hanssens et al., 2014). Weaknesses May lose the advantage of the first movers It has limiting global regional presence in comparison to the international competitors Opportunity - Capitalizing on 4G as well as 3G services Steady enhancement in the usage of internet Huge rivalry between the wired as well as cable networks A shift in this industry such as VoIP or Voice over Internet Protocol Threats The market share of this organization can be reduced by the mergers and acquisitions The evolution of newer technologies is becoming a key threat for this organization The rival companies are laying the fiber optic cable, which are giving the scope of direct access to the customers (Mintz Currim, 2013). Target Market The major target market of Optus mobile mainly aligns with the business group especially the corporate offices as well as the residential group. Moreover as per the demographic segmentation of Optus mobiles market, people within the age group of 15-40 years are the target group for this particular brand (Kumar Zia, 2016). On the other hand, people with middle and high income level are also the target group for this particular brand. Now, the question is how the target market of this brand fits with this specific campaign in Australia. The major purpose of this campaign is to create an awareness regarding the negative aspects of using mobile phones while driving. Numerous people within the age group of 22-40 and with high and middle income level generally drive cars or bikes to reach their offices or any other destination (Austin Gaither, 2016). All of these people are the target customers for Optus. Therefore, it is a significant responsibility of this organization to take an important initiative to save their customers lives by creating awareness regarding the harmfulness of the use of mobile phones while driving. Marketing Mix Marketing mix is referred to the set of tactics or actions that an organization utilizes for promoting its product or brand within the market (Kandhway Kuri, 2016). A typical marketing mix is made up of 4Ps such as product, promotion price and place. Product It is referred to the item, which would actually being sold and it should deliver a minimum level of performance. Hence, the creation of social awareness regarding the negative aspects of the mobile phone usage during driving can be considered as the product or more specifically the intangible product for this particular campaign (Schlegelmilch, 2016). The core value of this campaign is to let people know about the consequences of using mobile phones while driving cars and to stop such habit of people. Price Pricing can be utilized as the demarcation for enhancing and differentiating the products image. However, in this particular scenario, the pricing factor may not be considered as the product for this campaign is intangible. Nevertheless, for this campaign, opportunity cost factors can be considered as the opportunity cost can be referred to the benefit of promoting their products that Optus can receive by executing this campaign. Moreover, the community cost can also be considered in this study as it permits Optus for customizing the preference of local route and influences the selection of the best path by assigning cost values to particular routes. Promotion Promotion of this campaign incorporates awards, commissions, incentives, press reports, word of mouth and advertising to the trade. The major medium of the promotion for this campaign motive is advertizing though social media (Andaleeb, 2016). Optus can make the advertisements of this campaign while selling the mobile phones to the customers. This organization can also send messages to the registered email addresses of their new or existing customer regarding the safety concerns of not using mobile phones while driving. Place Place is referred to the point of sale. Gaining the consumers attention is the major focus of the place strategy or the good distribution. Moreover, it is the channel or route through which goods move from the source towards the final user. In this scenario, place is virtual as the product of this campaign is intangible (Hoffmann et al., 2014). For this campaign, intermediaries such as the social media can be considered as the place for the successful accomplishment of this campaign. On the other hand, Optus is the Australian organization and primarily, cities and places all over this country can be considered as the significant places for the continuation of this campaign. Attention-Grabbing Message Attention-grabbing message is such a message, which is intended for making people notice a particular activity or to seek attention of people towards the activity (Biroscak et al., 2014). Moreover, the attention-grabbing message for this particular campaign is a rational tagline. The tagline of this campaign of creating social awareness regarding the negative aspects of using mobile phones while driving is Steering and mobile cannot be together. Message Effectiveness Evaluation Slogans or the taglines always have a great role in terms of implementing a successful campaigning (Deshpande, 2016). Hence, in this scenario, the tagline Steering and mobile cannot be together is effectively capable of seeking the attention of the audiences. Steering is the most significant part of the two wheelers and four wheelers as well which must be properly controlled by both the hands of the drivers. If one of the hands gets engaged with other activities, then there would be chance of losing control, which ultimately results in severe accidents. Many times, mobile phone utilization can cause such distraction for the drivers. Therefore, it is a quite obvious fact that people must avoid rather stop using the mobile phones while driving cars. Thus, this tagline or the attention-grabbing message for this campaign organized by Optus can effectively create a cautiousness regarding the strict prohibition of mobile utilization during bike or car driving. The effectiveness of the campaign lies within its moral and social aspect. Many people are getting affected due such activity of using mobile phone. From the survey of Community Attitudes to Road Safety, it has been showed that 32% people are becoming the victim of the accidents due to the usage of mobile phones while driving. Therefore, by creating this social awareness through this campaign, the number of accidents can be reduced or even the chances of occurrence of the accidents would be stopped. Conclusion After discussing the entire study, it can be noticed from this study that a renowned mobile phone company of Australia, Optus is organizing such kind of social campaign for creating awareness regarding the safety concerns of mobile phone utilization during driving. By organizing such social marketing campaign, both the social and the business objectives of this organization would be properly accomplished. As per the social objective, awareness would be created among people regarding the prohibition of mobile phone use and thus, the number of road accidents would hopefully be minimized. Moreover, as per the business objective, this organization would be able to promote their mobile phones among their target audiences to enhance their market share. Furthermore, such kind of crucial social awareness cannot be created worldwide as the business service of this business is limited within Australia. References Andaleeb, S. S. (2016). Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning. InStrategic Marketing Management in Asia: Case Studies and Lessons across Industries(pp. 179-207). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Austin, L. L. Gaither, B. M. (2016). Examining public response to Corporate Social initiative types: A quantitative content analysis of Coca-Cola's Social media. Social Marketing Quarterly, 11(4), 290-306 Biroscak, B. J., Lefebvre, R. C., Schneider, T., Marshall, R. J., McDermott, R. J., Bryant, C. A. (2014). Assessment of social marketing education, training, and application in public health settings.International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing,11(2), 145-160. Deshpande, S. (2016). Corporate Social Marketing: Harmonious Symphony or Cacophonous Noise? Social Marketing Quarterly, 11(4), 255-263. Faruque, S. A., Khatun, M. A., Rahman, M. S. (2016). Modelling direct marketing campaign on social networks.International Journal of Business Information Systems,22(4), 422-435. Hanssens, D. M., Pauwels, K. H., Srinivasan, S., Vanhuele, M., Yildirim, G. (2014). Consumer attitude metrics for guiding marketing mix decisions.Marketing Science,33(4), 534-550. Hoffmann, F., Inderst, R., Ottaviani, M. (2014). Persuasion through Selective Disclosure: Implications for Marketing, Campaigning, and Privacy Regulation.JW Goethe University Frankfurt, UCL, and Bocconi. Huang, R., Sarigll, E. (2014). How brand awareness relates to market outcome, brand equity, and the marketing mix. InFashion Branding and Consumer Behaviors(pp. 113-132). Springer New York. Jones, S. C., Wyatt, A., Daube, M. (2016). Smokescreens and Beer Goggles How Alcohol Industry CSM Protects the Industry. Social Marketing Quarterly, 11(4), 264-279. Kandhway, K., Kuri, J. (2016). Campaigning in heterogeneous social networks: Optimal control of SI information epidemics.IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking,24(1), 383-396. Kumar, N. S., Zia, M. (2016). A Three Dimensional Vertical Differentiation Model: Implications for Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning. Leonidou, C. N., Katsikeas, C. S., Morgan, N. A. (2013). Greening the marketing mix: do firms do it and does it pay off?.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,41(2), 151-170. Mintz, O., Currim, I. S. (2013). What drives managerial use of marketing and financial metrics and does metric use affect performance of marketing-mix activities?.Journal of Marketing,77(2), 17-40. Optus, S. (2017).Optus - Mobile Phones, Broadband Internet, TV, Home Phone, Retrieved 30 January 2017, from Schlegelmilch, B. B. (2016). Segmenting Targeting and Positioning in Global Markets. InGlobal Marketing Strategy(pp. 63-82). Springer International Publishing.

Contemporary Issues in Professional Business Communication

Question: Discuss about theContemporary Issues in Professional Business Communication. Answer: Introduction The contemporary study brings up the leading elements of the professional communication with distinct methods to responsiveness of knowledgeable and invented skills and propensities to accomplish the genuine aims and purposes of focused and precise interface between the workforces and further eminent adherents of the efficient team. The working out of approaching and intensive progressive careers of the individuals accentuate on self-motivated concerts and enlightenment of virtuous, communal and legitimate advantages to undertake the longstanding defensible aims to indicate the factual structures of existence (Anastasia, 2014). Contemporary Interpretations on Professional Communications The well-designed organization executes the business activities in keeping with the space identified by the scheduling of administrative legislatures approaching the line of generous possibilities of exploring the tools and apparatuses of working phenomena to deal with the competitors who systematize to be related to the business. There are miscellaneous influences that generate prominent tasks in assigning and combining the personnel conferring to the essential demands (Machado, 2015). The feasible talents of diverse types of the players among the participants ought to be immaculately approved by the tools of acquirement of the personnel from categorical sectors of skill to accredit the vivacious duties and competent packages. There lie eminent ranges of the professions implemented by the persons to gain viable rewards. Corresponding to the vision of Armstrong and Taylor (2014), the awareness of pioneering employees comprising the sexual groupings raises the foundation of the dealin gs which are indispensable to realize the multifarious responsibilities relating to the profitable missions of the assembly. The ideas and purposes of the particular supports of the responsibilities are indisputably anticipated by the experienced personnel and members of the institute who move from end to end with the evaluation of experimentations formerly in advance of being nominated as potential competitor. There commonly mount the settings of variations in accepting the commitments of the occupation and the predominant liabilities, as per the conformation and confidence of operative careers and all that (Mazenod, 2013). The psychometric appraisals expose the synchronous rankings of culture and concrete abilities as needed. The values might conceivably relate to the coherent interpretations while debating on the outcomes of investigations in miscellaneous categories of operational recognitions in the structural settings of the industrious unit (Armstrong, 2010). Critical Assessment of Occupational Communication The ethical as well as attired doctrines of the functional cluster are essential to be indorsed by the workers who desire to acquire the steps to succeed in the execution of core and outward affairs with typical cluster of employees linked with the operational sector to clarify all classes of incompatibilities or open clashes. This highpoints the attitudes of contradictory frame of mind in diversified nations which requires to be eradicated with promising morale of the universal methods of professional communication approaches as well as influential applications of ensuing financial assistance by the shareholders and investors (Hyondong and Sung-Choon, 2011). The authorities are responsible for the construction of decent as well as delicate platform for the individuals who wishes to endorse their skills to gain assurance of equivalent devices, purposes and brilliant perspective for the acceptable challenges (, 2015). The supportive drive of the subtlety of the integrate d concepts is expected from the extensive and viable involvement of the cultural view of Japanese innovativeness. This develops the civilizations to exhibit unrivaled reputation in performance of operational standards alongside the talents. The Japanese industrial zone views on the insinuation of the incredibility avoidance consistent with the evaluation of Hofstedes understandings of anticipation of suspicions that reaps the idea of customary and collective disobedience. The workers have the desire for knowledge to come across the acquaintance in the ground of promotional measures those positions on the stage of suitability and realistic understanding with consequences of learning abilities. They are powerfully fascinated to identify whether the advancement of the individuals and the institution of re- allotment of services and the employees at miscellaneous positions are categorical consistent with the modern-day trends of mechanization (Epstein, 2011). The managerial performance and effective team-work throws elegant and informative possessions with stronger influence upon the interests and production of ideologies interrelated to diverse employees linked to the functioning establishment. There are autonomies of assignation, training, permission of encouraging elements, and exploration of the dimension of presentation accessible by the vital workforces. The Critical valuation of the prime impacts of unchanging jobs is suggestively decided by the standing of execution in keeping with the treasured societies of the demands of different kingdoms (Olsen and Stensaker, 2013). There are discrete infrastructures of programs and proceedings in various states dependent on the enlightening and customary tradition from end-to-end with the communal, organizational, commercial and authorized features. Agreeing to the ideology of Dowling et al. (2013), there endures a pool of endowed employees who progress with cautious approach to exhibit the widespread force of allocating the human resources into appropriate arrangements of diffusion of labor. The collection and mobilization of the indispensible personnel as substantial powers signify the system of continuous preparation and conveniences of extension to engender a pleasant-sounding environment of the functioning sequence. Mathis and Jackson (2011) acknowledged that the execution of human backup besides evolution illuminates the prospect of assumption to strengthen the creating events and the perfect communication within the internal and external members along the flow of offered investments to upsurge the chapter of fabrication sidelong with the inclination of the associates in the direction of modernized expansion of enlightening deeds and coherent abilities to appraise the superiority of facility. Challenges The stress in addition to challenging deeds serves the encouraging degree of the programs of present-day packages in the midst of the routine work of natural existence. The necessities of the plans and concerned multitudes create inspirational platforms to run through leading reinforcements of the series of the position of the miscellaneous potentials of the operating refinements (Olsen and Stensaker, 2013). They are fascinated and controlled by the values of societal and psychosomatic desires of the balanced and comprehensible devotions. The uncomplicated requirements maintain the essential situations of directness, provisions, self-assurance, safety and self-possession that relief to proliferate and raise the definite features of constructive profession and preservation. The learning instruction of the labor force is analytically correlated to the origination of prearranged educational and creative package that links the cognizance for an unambiguous resolution to plan the proficient adornment interpreting to the desires of the culture with all-in-one sophistication of corporeal, profitable, methodical assets consequent utilitarian rubrics (, 2017). The staffs absorb to sponsor the materials of mutual practice and group concert that echoes the insolence and the policies of the headship confidences of the expert. The stimulation and agreement of the controls benefit them to recover the quintessence of unconventionality, self-recognition in addition to self-worth. This subsequent wellbeing of the institute and the employees awards the vigorous drive and self-disciplined features of the civilizations that will unconditionally promote the effort of the mechanical pursuits in the comprehensive route of achievement (Panda and Sahoo, 2015). Consequences of Communication with Theoretical Judgment The discreet confidence of particular services might be controlled by the modesty of communication amongst the superintendents and the management. The abilities and propensities of the individuals are cultured through the elucidation of the geniuses in proper paths of creation. The predictable understanding of employees are titled to accomplish the principles of preparation in addition to the profile nurturing accessibilities to build a stage of thought-provoking landscapes of speculative indications that engenders interferences for the external competitors. It results into a viable stage of the demonstration of their potentials. The guidelines of the organization edges the link to appreciate the excellence of the employees and supervisors from the deteriorating classes, secondary associations of values, the reserved classes, populations, and the economically sinking cluster of personages (, 2017). There stays a requirement to safeguard well-organized communication amid the personnel and the supervision on top of the suppliers, the Direction, the regulars, the operational workers, and revolutionize the players of administration while promoting the readiness and determined efforts of the Establishment. As stated by the philosophical observations of Clampitts Communication Principle, at present stands a necessity of proclamation of security plus confidence to boost the groups of staffs who may perhaps appeal for definite questions withiin their concentrations on the subject of their professions, whether the contributors will induce them to depart from the pathway of production of merchandises or may generate a situation with the implementation of innovative Organizational strategies and the like. The administration must emphasize on the applicable values and appreciate their temperament only if there is a requirement of funding to comfort the status of the workers, gather the fac ts as regards several controlling tactics plus movements as well as create a durable foundation of occupational prospect between the workforces (Mazenod, 2013). On the contrary, the Expectancy principle bank on the motivational environment of the controls that must be remunerated following the enactment centered on the exertions and hard work en route for the Firms improvement policies. The judgment is anticipated to position as the upshot of the performance of the workers. The personnel accept as true that their acknowledgment of capacity and fitness rest on the reputation of their aptitudes (, 2017). Anticipation of positivity clues to the outset of trust and decency with the accurate execution of picked up skills. Conclusion A rational and industrious expansion of human wealth needs to possess the key practicalities of awareness that in the end may recover the welfares of the creativity of the organization. The understandings and identifications entail to be soundly matched with the fundamentals of the practical position. The postulants need to be applicably proficient and retain all-inclusive knowledge in high-tech grounds to meet with the interactive networks of flexible link. References Anastasia, P. (2014) 'European Judicial Training: Promoting The Development Of Standardised Training Materials And An Interactive Training Methodology'. ERA Forum 15(3), pp. 319-324. Armstrong, M and Taylor, S. (2014) Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 13th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited Armstrong, M. (2010) Armstrong's Essential Human Resource Management Practice: a guide to people management. London: Kogan Page Limited Dowling, P., Marion F., and Allen D. (2013) International Human Resource Management. Andover: Cengage Learning Epstein, I. (2011) 'Linking Ethics To Community Practice: Integrative Learning As A Reflective Practice'. Reflective Practice 12(1) pp. 127-138. Hyondong, P. and Sung-Choon, K. (2011) 'Strategic HR Functions And Firm Performance: The Moderating Effects Of High-Involvement Work Practices'. Asia Pac J Manag 30(1), pp. 91-113. (2017). IT Emerging Technology Market | LT Infotech. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017]. (2017). Employee Development | LT Technology Services | LT India. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017]. Machado, C (2015) International Human resource Management: challenges and changes Springer Mathis, R. L. and Jackson, J. H. (2011) Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives, 4th ed. London: Kogan Page Limited Mazenod, A. (2013) 'Engaging Employers In Workplace Training - Lessons From The English Train To Gain Programme'. International Journal of Training and Development 18(1), pp.53-65. Olsen, TH., and Stensaker, I. (2013) 'A Change-Recipient Perspective On Training During Organizational Change'. International Journal of Training and Development 18(1) pp. 22-36. Panda, S. and Sahoo, C. (2015) 'Strategic Talent Development Interventions: An Analysis'. Industrial and Commercial Training 47(1), pp. 15-22., (2017) Convergence and Divergence in Asian Human Resource Management, Available in,%20benson,%202002.pdf [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017]., (2017) 'Global Institute For Research Education (GIFRE): Employee perception about effectiveness of organizational culture: A study of Land T LTD Available in [Accessed 26 Apr. 2017].